Carmen Medina, aged 39, lives with her husband, Raúl, aged 43, who works as a mechanic in a small auto shop. Mr. Medina has worked in the same place since he and his wife came to the United States from Puerto Rico 15 years ago. The Medinas have a 4- year-old son, José; a 16-year-old daughter, Rosa; and an 18-year-old son, Miguel. The Medinas both attended vocational school after completing high school. Mrs. Medina is employed 4 hours a day at a garden shop. She stopped working her full-time job to care for her ill mother and aged father, who do not speak English and depend on government assistance. The family income last year was $28,500. The family has health insurance through Mr. Medina’s job. They live in a threebedroom apartment in a low-income Illinois community. Miguel works in a fast-food store a few hours a week. Because Rosa has responsibilities at home, the Medina’s do not allow her to work outside the home. She is very close to her grandmother but avoids talking with her parents. Both Rosa and Miguel are having difficulties in school. Rosa is pregnant and the family does not know. She is planning to drop out of school, get a job in a beauty shop, and leave home without telling the family. Miguel frequently comes home late and, on occasion, sleeps out of the home. He is beginning college next semester and has plans to move out of the house during the summer. The family is having difficulty dealing with Rosa’s and Miguel’s developmental and behavioral challenges. Although Mrs. Medina is outspoken about these concerns, Mr. Medina is quiet and not actively involved in the discussion. He is more preoccupied with the family’s financial situation. Mrs. Medina’s parents are encouraging them to return to Puerto Rico. Mr. Medina was diagnosed with hypertension 2 months ago, when he went to the emergency room for a respiratory infection. He smokes cigarettes and drinks two to three beers every evening after work. He has not followed up on his blood pressure treatment. Miguel is beginning to smoke, but not at home. José has had frequent colds and sinus allergies. He has been to the emergency room three times during the past year for respiratory infections. Mrs. Medina’s last physical examination was after she had José. She is experiencing insomnia, tiredness, headaches, and gastrointestinal problems. She is very concerned about Rosa and Miguel, her parents, and the family’s finances. Mrs. Medina is Catholic and recently has been visiting her church more often. Study Questions
1. Explain Mrs. Medina’s attitude in her relationship with her adolescent daughter.
2. Identify strategies to ensure that Rosa seeks prenatal care.
3. Identify barriers to accessing health care for the Medina family.
4. What are the high-risk behaviors exhibited by this family?
5. What communication barriers exist in this family that affect care delivery?
6. Discuss gender and family roles in the context of traditional Puerto Rican culture.
7. Identify sociodemographic factors affecting the physical- and mentalhealth well-being for this family.
8. Identify Puerto Rican folk practices appropriate for this family.
9. If the Medina family chose to visit a folk healer, which one(s) do you think they might visit? Why?
10. If Mrs. Medina’s parents visit a health-care provider, what might they expect?
11. Identify culturally congruent interventions to ensure compliance with Western health prescriptions for Mr. Medina.
12. Discuss the importance of respeto and familism in the Medina family.
13. Identify culturally congruent interventions for Rosa’s pregnancy.
14. Identify health-promotion and disease-prevention interventions needed for José.